Orsythia is a birth control medication suppressing an ovulation. The main components are ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel.
Indications for use
- Oral contraception;
- Functional menstrual cycle disorders (including dysmenorrhea without an organic cause, dysfunctional metrorrhagia, premenstrual syndrome).
Mechanism of action
Orsythia is an oral monophasic combined estrogen-gestagen contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel. When taken, it suppresses the pituitary secretion of gonadotropic hormones.
Progestin and its derivative are known as a derivative of 19-nortestosterone. Levonorgestrel, progesterone, is superior in activity to the hormone of the yellow body and performs on the level of receptors without preliminary metabolic transformations. The estrogen component is ethinyl estradiol. Under the influence of levonorgestrel comes the blockade of the releasing hypothalamus hormones (LH and FSH), inhibiting the secretion of the gonadotrophic hormones by the pituitary gland. It leads to inhibition of maturation and release of the ovum (ovulation) ready for fertilization.
The contraceptive effect is maintained by ethinyl estradiol. It provides a high viscosity of the cervical mucus. As an additional aim, this drug normalizes the menstrual cycle and assists to prevent the development of a number of gynecological diseases, inclusively of a tumor nature.
Mode of application and dosage
Take orally as a whole washed down with a small amount of water. The course starts on the first day of menstruation, within 28 days of daily intake. 1 pill of Orsythia is a daily recommended dosage preferably taken at the same time of the day. During the application of placebo pills, menstrual-like bleeding starts. A 7-day break is not required. In order to ensure the necessary order, the package contains numbers and an arrow. With good tolerability, the drug is taken as long as there is a need for contraception.
Orsythia is contraindicated in the following cases:
- severe hepatic disorders (including congenital hyperbilirubinemia – Gilbert’s syndrome, chronic idiopathic jaundice);
- presence or predisposition to severe cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases;
- thromboembolism and predisposition to it;
- malignant tumors (primarily breast cancer or endometrium);
- hepatic tumors;
- hyperlipidemia in close relatives;
- severe forms of hypertension;
- endocrine dysfunctions (including severe forms of diabetes mellitus);
- sickle-cell anemia;
- chronic hemolytic anemia;
- vaginal bleeding of unclear etiology;
- hydatid pregnancy;
- idiopathic jaundice of pregnant women in the medical history;
- severe skin itch of the pregnant;
- herpes during pregnanсу;
- age over 40 years;
- pregnancy or suspicion of it;
- lactation period;
- hypersensitivity to the drug components.
Be cautious when taking Orsythia:
- the liver and gallbladder diseases;
- ulcerative colitis;
- uterine fibroid;
- renal diseases;
- disorders of the cardiovascular system;
- increased arterial blood pressure;
- impaired renal function;
- multiple sclerosis;
- hysterical chorea;
- adolescence age.
Orsythia is usually well tolerated provoking fewer side effects.
Possible transient side effects spontaneously occurring: nausea, vomiting, headache, breast tenderness, weight and libido changes, mood changes, acyclic spotting. In some cases, there are cases of eyelid edema, conjunctivitis, visual impairment, discomfort when wearing contact lenses (these phenomena are temporary and disappear after withdrawal without prescribing any therapy).
In the case of prolonged admission, the following Orsythia side effects are observed as chloasma, hearing loss, generalized pruritus, jaundice, cramps in the calf muscles, and increased frequency of epileptic seizures.
Rarely, there are cases of hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, decreased glucose tolerance, increased blood pressure (BP), thrombosis and venous thromboembolism, jaundice, skin rashes, changes in the nature of vaginal secretion, vaginal candidiasis, increased fatigue, and diarrhea.
- Barbiturates, some antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, phenytoin), sulfonamides, pyrazolone derivatives are capable to improve the steroid hormones metabolism.
- Reduction of contraceptive effectiveness can be manifested with the simultaneous application with some antimicrobial agents (including ampicillin, rifampicin, chloramphenicol, neomycin, polymyxin B, sulfonamides, tetracyclines), which is associated with the intestinal microflora changes.
- When used simultaneously with anticoagulants, coumarin or indanedione derivatives, an additional prothrombin index and dose’s change of the anticoagulant may be required.
- The use of tricyclic antidepressants, maprotiline, beta-blockers may enhance their bioavailability and toxicity.
- When using oral hypoglycemic drugs and insulin, it may be necessary to change their dose.
- When combined with bromocriptine, its effectiveness decreases.
- When combined with drugs with a potential hepatotoxic effect, for example, dantrolene, there is an increase in hepatotoxicity, especially in women older than 35 years.
What if I miss a dose?
If Orsythia pill was missed within the prescribed period: the missed tablet should be taken within the next 12 hours. In this case, there is no need for additional methods of contraception. The remaining tablets are recommended to be taken at the usual time. If more than 12 hours have passed, the last skipped pill should be taken and continue taking the drug in the normal regimen. In this case, additional methods of contraception (barrier methods, spermicides) should be used within the next 7 days.
Orsythia and pregnancy
Orsythia is not prescribed during pregnancy and lactation. If pregnancy is detected during this birth control administration, the drug should be immediately discontinued. Extensive epidemiological studies have not revealed any enhanced risk of developmental defects in children.
Taking combined oral contraceptives can decrease the amount of breast milk and change its composition. So, as a rule, their use is not recommended during breastfeeding. A small number of sex hormones and/or their metabolites can penetrate into breast milk, but there is no evidence of their negative impact on the fetus health.