Yaz is a birth control preparation containing drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol as the components for the ovulation prevention. This medication is monophasic with one and the same hormone dose.
Indications for use
- Acne vulgaris;
- Premenstrual syndrome of severe form.
Mechanism of action
Yaz is a hormonal birth control with non-corticoid and antiandrogenic action. The contraceptive effect is based on the interaction of various factors, the most significant of which are to suppress the ovulation and to change the properties of the cervical allocations. As aresult, it becomes more тв more difficult for a sperm to penetrate the uterine walls.
In women taking this monophasic birth control pils, the menstrual cycle becomes more regular, less painful, the intensity of bleeding decreases, which reduces the risk of anemia. In addition, according to epidemiological studies, the use of combined oral contraceptives reduces the risk of developing endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer.
Drospirenone, contained in Yaz, has an antimineralocorticoid action. It prevents the increase in body weight and the appearance of edema associated with estrogen-induced fluid retention, which ensures a very good drug tolerability.
Drospirenone has a positive effect on premenstrual syndrome. Clinical effectiveness confirms the decrease in the symptoms of severe PMS such as severe psychoemotional disorders, breast tenderness, headache, muscle and joint pain, weight gain and other symptoms associated with the menstrual cycle. In the US, the severe form of PMS is referred to as the “premenstrual dysphoric syndrome”.
Drospirenone also has anti-androgenic effect and assists to decrease the symptoms of acne, skin and hair oiliness. This action is similar to the action of natural progesterone, produced by the body.
Drospirenone does not have androgenic, estrogenic, glucocorticoid and antiglucocorticoid activity. All this in combination with antimineral and corticoid and antiandrogenic action provides a biochemical and pharmacological profile, similar to natural progesterone. In combination with this, the drospirenone shows a favorable effect on the lipid profile characterized by an increase in high-density lipoproteins (HDL).
Mode of application and dosage
Intended for an oral administration. Yaz tablets should be taken in the manual indicated by the arrows on the package, daily at approximately the same time, washed down with a small amount of water. Tablets are taken without break. 1 tablet per day should be taken consecutively for 28 days. The application of tablets from each subsequent package should begin the day after the last tablet from the previous package was taken. Menstruation, as a rule, begins on the 2nd-3rd day after the start of the reception of white inactive tablets and may not be completed before taking the tablets from the next package. Intake of tablets from a new package should always start on the same day of the week, and menstruation will occur approximately on the same days of each month.
- Hypersensitivity to drug constituents including main components;
- Venous and arterial thromboses;
- Transient ischemic attacks, angina pectoris at present or in the medical history;
- Acquired or hereditary predisposition to venous or arterial thrombosis, including resistance to activated protein C, deficiency of antithrombin III, deficiency of protein C, deficiency of protein S, antibodies to phospholipids;
- A high risk of venous or arterial thrombosis;
- Migraine with focal neurologic symptoms at present or in the medical history;
- Diabetes mellitus complicated by vascular problems;
- Hepatic failure and severe liver disease;
- Liver tumors (benign or malignant) at present or in the medical history;
- Severe renal failure, acute renal failure;
- Adrenal insufficiency;
- Diagnosed or suggested hormone-dependent malignant diseases;
- Bleeding from the vagina of unknown origin;
- Intolerance to lactose, lactase deficiency, glucose-galactose malabsorption;
- Diagnosed or suggested pregnancy;
- Breastfeeding period.
- Infectious and parasitic diseases: candidiasis.
- Blood and lymphatic system: anemia, thrombocythemia.
- Immune system: – allergic reactions; hypersensitivity.
- Metabolism and nutrition: – increased appetite, anorexia, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia.
- Mental disorders: often – emotional lability, depression, decreased libido; infrequently – nervousness, drowsiness, rarely – anorgasmia, insomnia.
- Nervous system: often – headache; infrequently – dizziness, paresthesia; rarely – vertigo, tremor.
- Organ of vision: rarely – conjunctivitis, dryness of eyes mucous membrane.
- Cardiovascular System: tachycardia.
- Vascular System: often – migraine; infrequent – varicose veins, increased blood pressure; rarely phlebitis, epistaxis, syncope, venous thromboembolism (VTE), arterial thromboembolism (ATE).
- Digestive tract: often – nausea; infrequently – abdominal pain, vomiting, dyspepsia, flatulence, gastritis, diarrhea; rarely – bloating, a feeling of heaviness in the abdomen, oral cavity candidiasis, constipation, dry mouth.
- Hepatic and biliary tract: rarely – biliary dyskinesia, cholecystitis.
- Skin and subcutaneous tissues: infrequently – acne, pruritus, rash; rarely – chloasma, eczema, alopecia, acne dermatitis, dry skin, erythema nodosum, hypertrichosis, contact dermatitis, photodermatitis, skin swelling; frequency is unknown – erythema multiforme.
- Musculoskeletal and connective tissue: infrequently – back pain, pain in the limbs, muscle cramps.
- Genitals and the breast: often – pain in the mammary glands, metrorrhagia, absence of menstrual bleeding; infrequent – vaginal candidiasis, pelvic pain, enlarged mammary glands, fibrocystic breast formation, bleeding from the genital tract, discharge from the genital tract, hot flushes, vaginitis, painful menstrual bleeding, copious menstrual bleeding, dryness of the vaginal mucosa; rarely – dyspareunia, vulvovaginitis, postcoital bleeding, cancellation bleeding, breast hyperplasia, mammary gland neoplasm, cervical polyp, atrophy of the endometrium, ovarian cyst, uterine enlargement.
- Laboratory and instrumental data: infrequently – weight gain; rarely – weight loss.
The interaction of Yaz (enzyme inducers, some antibiotics) can lead to breakthrough bleeding and/or a decrease in contraceptive reliability. Women taking these drugs should temporarily use barrier methods of contraception in addition to the Yaz pills or choose another method of contraception.
What if I miss a dose?
There is no danger when skipping inert pills. If it happens thrown them away, not to occasionally continue the inactive period.
If you skip active pill intake for less than 12 hours, the contraceptive effect is kept in the same value. In this case, it is better to take the skipped pill as soon as possible continuing the course as usual.
If you skip the active pill for more than 12 hours, the contraceptive effect can become lower. Remember: if you skip the active at the beginning, of course, it is not dangerous but the closer to the end of the hormone intake the greater the risk is.
If something wrong happens to make use of the following recommendations:
- the drug should never be withdrawn for more than 4 days;
- 7 days of continuous tablet intake are required to reach significant suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian system;
If the delay in taking pills containing hormones is more than 12 hours, you can follow such recommendations:
- From the 1st to the 7th day: A woman should apply the last skipped pill at the moment she understands the omission. There are cases when women should take 2 pills at one and the same time. The other pills are taken in the ordinary regimen. In addition, during the next 7 days, It is better to use some other means of protection (for example, a condom). If sexual intercourse has occurred within 7 days before passing the pill, you should consider the possibility of pregnancy.
- From the 8th to the 14th day: The pill should be taken right away after realizing you skip an active pill. If you take correctly the pills for the first 7 days you should not use additional methods of contraception. If there were problems with it it is better to protect yourself from unwanted pregnancy.
- From the 15th to the 24th dayThe risk to reduce the contraceptive effect is obvious. There are 2 ways to cope with this problem: if you take the first 7 pills according to recommendations you should not be afraid of unwanted pregnancy. If there was missed pills among the first seven you’d better take additional measures to protect herself.
Yaz and pregnancy
The use of the drug is contraindicated during pregnancy and breastfeeding. The possibility of pregnancy should not be excluded in any patient of a reproductive age in the presence of symptoms characteristic of pregnancy, especially in those who did not follow the regimen of the Yaz application.
If the patient is planning a pregnancy, she may stop taking Yaz at any time. If the patient simultaneously takes potentially harmful to the fetus (teratogenic) drugs and therefore needs a pregnancy prevention, the decision on the possibility of Yaz discontinuation can be carried out only after visiting a doctor.
If the pregnancy is detected during the birth control application, the drug should be immediately discontinued. However, extensive epidemiological studies have not revealed any increased risk of developmental defects in children born to women who received sex hormones (including COCs) before pregnancy, or teratogenic effects, when sexual hormones were taken at early pregnancy.
Existing data on the results of taking Yaz during pregnancy are limited, which does not allow us to draw any conclusions about the drug’s effect on the course of pregnancy, the health of the newborn and the fetus. There are no significant epidemiological data on this issue at this time. Its admission can reduce the amount of breast milk and change its composition, so their use is not recommended until the termination of breastfeeding. A small number of sex hormones and/or their metabolites can penetrate into breast milk and affect the body of the newborn.